World History Test 2

Question Answer
indian civilization began along the indus river
India is a subcontient
this part of India is dry and not suitable for farming Deccan plateau
the Aryans invaded India via Hindu Kush passes
The writing of the Indus River Valley Civilizations… has not yet been deciphered
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro did NOT have… temples within the fortified citadel
What event likely led to the decline of the Indus River Valley civilizations? Environmental change
The Aryans were… nomadic warriors
Which Indian Epic defines dharma for a prince of the warrior caste? Bhagavad-Gita
Which Indian epic defined dharma for a virtuous woman? Ramayana
These are the four books of Hindu religious texts written in Sanskrit… Vedas
In their creation story, the varnas developed from the first primordial man
Which is NOT a natural barrier for China? the Bay of Bengal
Zhong guo middle kingdom
Silk was perfected during the… Han dynasty
The Zhou published their political theory in ther Rites of Zhou
This form of Buddhism developed into more of a religion with Buddha as a divine being Mahayana
Buddha's original question was… why is there suffering?
The middle way of Buddhism is… a life of moderation
Shi Huangdi was emperor during the Qin Dynasty
The government was a feudal (decentralized) system under the… Zhou Dynasty
The longest dynasty of Chinese history… Zhou Dynasty
Buddhism migrated along the Silk Road at the end Han Dynasty
Legalism was the government philosophy during the Qin Dynasty
China experienced a Golden Age during the Han Dynasty
Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism developed to restore the balance of yin and yang
The Great Wall and the Terra Cotta Soldiers were BOTH forced labor projects by Shi Huangdi
The only real example of cultural diffusion in China was… Buddhism
Indus Civilization writing was found on cylinder seals
These people were the highest caste, created from the first man's head Brahmin
This caste is also known as the untouchables Dalit
Your religious duties and obligations are your… Dharma
The ultimate goal of all Hindus is… Moksha
The Hindu soul, or essential self… atman
This is defined as respect for one's parents and ancestors. filial piety
set of rigid social structures into which people are born and which can rarely be changed caste system
caste system determines what? occupation and economic potential & position society
Code of behavior between castes didn't allow? intermarriage and interaction
Why didn't people try to escape the caste systems? it's bad kharma, only hope was to rise to a higher caste
Although caste was unfair it? created stable social order
both monotheistic and polytheistic hinduism
religion/philosophy Buddhism
founder of buddhism Siddharta Gautama
a Hindu prince from which class? Kshatriya
What did his mother dream of? a white elephant
What did the elephant symbolize? he'd become a great holy man
Why did his father not like the idea of that? he wanted his son to become a great king/ leader
How did his father react to this? locked him up in the palace
What did Siddhartha see when he ran away? death and misery
Which group did he join? ascetics priests
What did he spend 40 days doing? And what happened? praying under a Bodhi tree; he became enlightened
enlightened one Buddha
What is the cause of pain and suffering? attachment to things of this world
Four Noble Truths 1. There is suffering in the world2. Suffering is caused by selfish desires3. Suffering can be removed if we do away with selfish desire4. Overcome is to follow Eightfold Path or Middle way between a life devoted to pleasure & one of self -denial
What caused the decline in the Indus River Civilization? Environmental changes Aryan Invasion
built no cities and left few artifacts Aryans
books of religious writings, hymns, and prayers that were organized into four books when written down became the bases of Hindu Vetas
warriors, with no central government, and who shifted alliances based on loyalty to who regional rajans Aryans
the oldest of the Vedas Rigveda
describes the Aryan social system based on four classes Rigveda
priests, academics Brahmins
Head Brahmins
warrior, kings Kshatriyas
arm Kshatriyas
business, community Vaishyas
leg Vaishyas
servants, subordinates to vaishya, kshatriya, Brahmins Kshudras
foot Kshudras
untouchable; do all lower-order work subordinate to all the dalit
an episode in Mahabharata Arjuna visited by a God and tells him how to be a good prince Bhagavad-Gita
large land mass jutting off a contienent subcontient
India is protected by ? Hindu Kush and Himalayas
India's natural barriers of water Indian ocean, the bay of bengal, Arabian sea
dark green area; cradle of Indian civilization Northern Plains
Floods the northern plateau Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra
seasonal wind patterns monsoos
2 major cities Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
cities were discovered by? Sir Mortimer Wheeler
Harappa and Mohenjo – Daro had? urban civilizationlarge citieswalled citiesuniformed civilizationhouses were all made of uniform oven fired clay brickswell planned cities laid out in a grid patternmajor avenues twice as wide as minor streetspublic wells provided a regular
H And M cont., regular supply of waterdrainage and sewage systems as well as garbage system deposited into chutes that brought it to street level garbage binsmodern plumbing systems/indoor bathroomsmassive hilltop fortress
no founder hinduism
rituals may include yoga hinduism
sacred texts of Hinduism VedasUpanishadsBhagavad-Gita
knowledge Vedas
a singular spiritual power that exists beyond the many gods of the Vedas & resides in all things Brahman
essential self separated from Brahman at Earth Atman
Union with Brahman, ultimate goal of all hindus Moksha
the unending cycle of death and rebirth reincarnation
the sum of your actions on Earth measured against what you should be doing karma
the religious moral duties of an individual has a soul; an ideal of hinduism dharma
The natural barriers that isolated China? Gobi Desert Himalayas/TibetYellow, Pacific Ocean, East China SeaNo name
China called themselves? Zhong guo and the source of civilization
Two rivers that created Chinese heartland? Yellow and Yangtze River
Chinese civilization began on the ? Yellow river
a fine yellow silt Loess
yellow river is so-named because? Loess
the river of sorrows yellow
first dynasty in China Shang Dynasty
monarchy government shang
river valley society shang
religion included belief in the afterlife Shang
the ultimate diety, and would only communicate with the souls of deceased ancestors resulted in the practice of ancestor veneration Shang di
commonly mistaken for ancestor veneration ancestor worship
animal bones or turtle shells with questions carved into them oracle bones
chinese writing dates back to the Oracle bones in what dynasty? shang dynasty
art form of chinese writing calligraphy
How was Chinese writing a force for national unity? does not conform a spoken language; understood by those who know the writing
longest ruling dynasty of 800 yrs Zhou dynasty
What did the Chou claim about Zhou? the last shang king was an oppressive tyrant and not worthy of ruling
created a new political theory called the mandate of heaven Zhou
wrote down their theory in the? Rites of Zhou
Mandate of heaven claimed? Chou emperor was chosen from Heaven because of his talent, virtues, goodness and efficiency
side effects of new government not divinemust rule effectively & perceived well by the pplthe right of the people to rebel
Zhou developed into a feudalist gov.
local lords governed their own land but owed military service and other forms of support to their ruler feudalism
Dynastic cycle found by powerful leader – period of great power & prosperity – Period of decline – Period of Rebellion dynasty overthrown
introduced iron into China Zhou
How do you prove you have the mandate? you win?
200 yrs of civil war Warring states period
ends when Qin dynasty comes to power Warring states period
three philosophies emerged: Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism Warring states period
was to ensure powerful government and achieve social order Qin
accept place in society in society; leaders lead by example confucianism
nature; government was "unnatural" & evil daoism
harsh laws & strict punishments Legalism
first emperor Shi Huangdi
ends civil warestablishes legalism as Qinstrong & mean Shi Huangdi
peasant established Han
re-established mandate of heaven Han
replaced legalism with Confucianism Han Dynasty
"Don't have to be born into a good social rank to be government official unless you work hard" confucianism
expanded the borders of China Wudi
society of Han Dynasty Confucianism
social order will resolve if? population about family relations; filial piety
Golden Age during which Dynasty? Han
Acupuncture Han
real ex of cultural diffusion buddhism
spread of Buddhism in ? Han dynsaty
trade along ? silk road
network of roads/trade silk, small luxury items; brings buddhism into China silkroad
perfected silk, iron plow, cultural creativity, scientific advances happens during which dynasty? Han dynasty
Buddhism final goal? Nirvana
standarized weights and measuresdistrubuted the land od nobles to peasantsmade a new form of chineseforced noble fmailies to live in his capital shi huangdi
reject conflict and strife Daoism
Mahayana Buddhists who have achieved Nirvana but lived and became teachers Bodhisattvas
chief Aryan diety god of war Indra
teaches religion and warfare Mahabharata

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