supplies Chapters 5&6 review

Term Definition
What does LASER stand for? Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Reflection The direction of the beam is changed after it contacts a surface; the beam can be intentionally reflected to treat hard-to-reach areas or reflection can inadvertently happen and pose a safety hazard.
Scattering The beam can disperse in all directions, causing a decrease in intensity; the beam spreads over a large area.
Absorption The beam alters or disrupts the tissue in some way.
Transmission The beam is transmitted through tissue without thermally affecting it.
Parts of a LASER Excitation source Delivery system Laser headControl panel The ancillary or accessory equipment.
Characteristics of a laser beam CoherentMonochromaticParallel (collimated)
Types of LASERs Carbon DioxideArgonHolmium :YAG
Carbon Dioxide Laser invisible beam that does not depend on pigmented tissue (can be focused into a thin beam to cut tissue) Requires a helium-neon beam (red) to make it aimable. Usable with many different surgeries.
Argon Laser visible blue-green beam that is absorbed by red-brown pigmented tissues. Not absorbed by clear tissue. Useful for retinal surgeries.
Holmium: YAG Laser invisible beam (aiming beam necessary-red or green) used with all tissue types. Used in Urology, Orthopedics, ENT, and Endoscopic Spine surgeries.
LASER Safety always needs Laser safety door signLaser eyewear (not regular eyeglasses or goggles!)
Rules for laser safety (Know 3) -Only personnel knowledgeable in laser use, operation and safety protocol should operate the laser.-The foot pedal should only be operated by the surgeon holding the handpiece.-All electrical cords should be inspected prior to surgery.
More rules for laser safety (Know 3) – All lasers should be in "standby" mode when not in use during surgery.-Allow all prep solutions to dry completely before using the laser.-Surround the surgical site with wet towels.-Water or saline must be available on the surgical field.
More rules for laser safety (Know 3) -All surfaces in the room must be non-reflective, all tables should be covered or removed, and instruments should be matte finish or ebony.-Staff should wear specially designated laser masks to protect against plume exposure
Anoscope Viewing the anus
Arthroscopy viewing a joint
Bronchoscopy viewing the inside of the lungs or bronchus
Colonoscopy viewing the colon
Cystoscopy viewing the inside of the bladder
Duodenoscopy Viewing the inside of the duodenum
Esophagoscopy viewing the inside of the esophagus
Fluoroscopy Viewing inside organs or tissues using x-ray
Hepatoscopy Viewing inside the Liver
Hysteroscopy Viewing inside the uterus
Laparoscopy viewing inside the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Laryngoscopy viewing the inside of the larynx
Mediastinoscopy viewing inside the mediastinum
Pelvioscopy viewing inside the pelvis
Rhinoscopy Viewing inside the nose
Sigmoidoscopy Viewing inside the sigmoid colon
Thoracoscopy Viewing inside the chest
Tracheoscopy viewing inside the trachea
Ureteroscopy Viewing inside the ureter
Components of a Video Tower Monitor or TVDevice for recording picturesLight source for the cameraCamera systemInsufflation
If only one tower, where is it placed? Either at the foot of the bed or on the opposite side of the surgeon at the head of the bed by the patient's shoulder.
What is Fred and what is it used for? Anti-fogging agent used to keep the endoscopic camera from fogging up.
Care of Endoscopic Cameras( Know 3) -Make sure the camera works prior to surgery.-Never place cameras at the bottom of an instrument tray.-Never place anything else on top of the camera when setting up your table.-Coil the camera cord loosely.
More care of Endoscopic Cameras (Know 3) -Disconnect the cable by grasping the plug not the cable.-Follow the manufacturer's instructions for cleaning and sterilizing cameras, cords, and couplers.-Never use anything abrasive to clean camera, lens, or components.
Care of Rigid Endoscopes (Know 3) -Never Pick up and hold scopes by the distal end.-Scrubbed personnel must look through the eyepiece before attaching the camera before surgery.-Prior to surgery check the scope shaft for damage, dents, or bends.
More Care of Rigid Endoscopes (Know 3) -Attach the camera and turn it on prior to surgery to make sure it works.-Never place scopes at the bottom of an instrument tray.-When not in use set the scope on a flat surface to avoid accidental flexion and damage.
More Care of Rigid Endoscopes (Know 3) -Never place anything on top of scopes when setting up table.-Support the shaft of the scope with one hand to avoid over flexion and possible damage when handing to the surgeon.-Never coil the cord tighter than the diameter of a soda can.
Care of Cystoscopes (Know 3) -Read manufacturer's Instructions for cleaning and sterilizing.-Handle the scope by the middle of the shaft.-Do not place anything on top of the scope.
More Care of Cystoscopes (Know 3) -Do not coil cord too tightly.-Check all scopes and accessories for damage prior to surgery.- Make sure all stopcocks are open when cleaning and sterilizing after use.
Continuous Irrigation setup Used for Transurethral Resection (TUR) of the prostate.
Cystoscopy (Shorter than for Utereroscopy)Telescope and ObturatorSheathBridge
Ureteroscopy equipment (Longer than for Cystoscopy)Telescope and ObturatorSheathBridge
Uses for Rigid Laryngoscopes DiagnoseIdentifyRemove
Rigid Laryngoscope Setup ScopeLight cord / light fibersLight source box
Uses for Rigid Bronchoscopes View airwayBiopsyRemove foreign object
Uses for Rigid Esophagoscopes Visualize masses or lesionsRemove foreign bodyBiopsy
Uses of Mediastinoscopes Detect lymphomaDiagnose Biopsy
Uses for Thoracoscopes Biopsy lung, pleura, or diaphragmResect the lungDiagnose
Why are Arthroscopies performed? Diagnose and repair injury to a joint
What is the advantage of a flexible scope? In most cases it does not require the use of Anesthesia.
Care of Flexible Endoscopes (Know 3) -Coil the scope loosely-Inspect all scopes for holes or tears on outer casting prior to use.-Do not place heavy objects on top of scope-lay on flat surface to avoid kinking or twisting the shaft.-Clean bioburden off of scope during procedure.
The Verres needle is used for… Introducing Carbon dioxide into the abdomen.
The verres needle is attached to …….. The insufflation tubing
The insufflation tubing must….. have a filter and be flushed with CO2 (to remove air) prior to insufflation of the abdomen.
An alternative for the verres needle is …. a Hassen Cannula
The Hassen Cannula requires.. The surgeon to make a 1cm incisionin the area of the umbilicus and place a heavy suture into the fascia on each side of the incision.
The trocar is… the part of the device that pierces the tissue
The cannulas come in these sizes 5mm to15mm ( 5 & 10mm are the most common)
A reducer is needed when…. a 10mm trocar is inserted into the abdomen and the surgeon wants to use a 5 mm instrument.
A reducer has… a soft pliable opening that closes around the 5mm instrument so that CO2 is not lost out of the abdomen.

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