Inside The Earth

Term Definition
Crust The thin and soild outermost layer of the earth above the mantle.
Mantle The layer of rock between the earths crust or core
Core The central part of the earth below the mantle.
Lithosphere The solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.
Asthenosphere The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move.
Mesosphere The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core.
Tectonic plate A block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle.
Continental drift The hypothesis that states that continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted or their present locations.
Sea~floor spreading The process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies.
Plate tectonics
The theory that explains how large pieces of the earths outermost layer, called tectonic plates, move and change shape
Convergent boundary The boundary formed by the collision of two lithosphere
Divergent boundary The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Transform boundary The boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding pst each other horizontally.
Compression Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
Tension Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
Folding The bending of rock layers due to stress
Fault A break in a body of rock alone which one block slides relative to another
Uplift The rising of regions of the earths crust to higher elevations
Subsidence The sinking of regions of the earths crust to lower elevations

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