CC 290 2 PART 2

Question Answer
Chicago school 1833-1910 population 1833 – 4,000; population 1910 – 2 million
ZONES – Park and Burgess identified zones 1. central/factory zone2. zone of transition3. zone of workers' homes4. commuter/residential zone
zone of transition zone with social disorganization -> increased instances of delinquency, truancy and recidivism – crime would be higher
crime rates decline as one moves further away from what zone? zone of transition
Parks and Burgess concluded that Social Disorganization was.. a significant cause of criminality and delinquency
Social Disorganization Theory – theorized in various parts – parents were poor, busy and had few resources to use to occupy their kids- parents' english skills were weak -> kids would have to translate making it easier for kids to hide their delinquency- schools were poor and overcrowded- housing crowded
Starks Five Criminogenic Factors – density- poverty- mixed use- transience- dilapidation
Four ways people react to these conditions (criminogenic factors)
Three ways these criminogenic factors amplify deviance – attracting deviance to an area- driving out the least deviant- further reducing social control
Durkheim on Social Ritual – rituals are part of the non-rational aspect of social interaction- ritual serve to form a moral cocoon around the individual -. protect from deviance
Strain Theory a theory that posits when the social structure is comprised of a series of universal goals (that everyone can aspire to) – but limited means to achieve those goals, that deviance will occur as a result
Anomie – disjunction between goes and capacity to achieve those goals -> creating conditions for normlessness/deviance
Merton's Five types of alignment 1. conformity2. innovation3. ritualism4. retreatism5. rebellion
Merton believes action is oriented to… goal attainment
Cohen believes (merton's action orientation) some of that action (merton's goal attaining) is for problem-solving
Rosenfeld and Messner's adoption of Strain Theory – went back to macro approach that focused more exclusively on structural features of American society as opposed to discussions of Anomie- attended to the detail of American Social Structure
American Individualism – americans have a culturally distinct perspective on their place in society ("I made it, I made it on my own")- downplay the community and overplay themselves -> contributes to the state of Anomie
American Universalism everyone in America ought to be able to make it – in America, hard work pays off, not family connections, not status, not race, etc.
Money as the Signifier of Success Americans treat money as the ONLY indication of success or the key to success, thus undervaluing any other form of achievement
Agnew's General Strain Theory looks at the more personal factors contributing to strain and leading to deviance
Agnew's Three types of Strain 1. inability to achieve positive goals2. the removal or threat of removal of positive stimuli -> loss of some object, person, place3. to present a threat to someone who may themselves be threatening -> participate in deviance bc perceived threat
Objective Strains strains that nearly everyone would dislike
Subjective Strains how the individual tends to respond to a strain given their unique temperament, or the strains that only apply to specific individuals
Strains most likely to cause deviance when – they are seen as high in magnitude- they are seen as unjust- they are associated with low social control- they create pressure to engage in criminal coping
Agnew notes… people are more likely to react criminally to strain when they have diminished language skills -> indicate an incapability to use the legal system (our legal system is language based)

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