key term review

Term Definition
philanthropy charitable donations p
social responsibilty is the principle that companies should contribute to the welfare of society and not be solely devoted to maximizing profits sr
environmental protection agency an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs and enforce regulations aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment ep
ethics guidelines for human behavior e
ethical behavior conduct that adheres to this moral code eb
business ethics the study of behavior and morals in a business situationbe
code of ethics a group of ethical behavior guidelines that govern the day to day activities of a profession or organization ce
conflict of interest clash between a persons private interest and his or her responsibility in a position of trust ci
bribes payments made to secure special services for a business or special consideration for its products b

biology 5.1 5.2

Question Answer
What are the four main stages? Gap 1, Synthesis, Gap 2, and Mitosis
Where do the stages get their name from? The stages get their name from early studies of cell division
What is DNA? DNA is a double stranded molecule
What is a chromosome? A chromosome is one long continuous thread of DNA
How much body cells do we have? 46 chromosomes each
How many parts did scientists divide cells into? 2 parts
What happens in gap 1? In gap 1 a cell carries out it's normal functions
What happens in synthesis? In synthesis the cell makes a copy of it's DNA
What happens in gap 2? In gap 2 the cell continues to carry out their normal functions
What happens in mitosis? The cell nucleus divides in mitosis
What if the cell is too small? If the cell is too small it won't be able to hold organelles or molecules
What happens if the cell has too much mitochondria? If the cell has too much mitochondria it would not have enough energy to live
What do cells have? Cells have upper and lower size limits
What is the limit of cell size due to? The limit of cell size is due to the ratio of cell surface to volume
What happens when the cell increases in size? Volume increases faster than surface area

African Empires

Question Answer
What are the empires of west Africa? Songhai and the Asante
What was one empire of Southern Africa? Zulu
What was one empire in Central Africa? Kongo
What was one empire in East Africa? Ethiopia
Which two African empires became Christian strongholds? Ethiopia and the Knogo
The leaders of which African empire converted to Islam? Songhai
Which 2 African empires stayed true to their indigenous belief systems? Asante and Zulu
Which river served as a conduit for trade and travel for the Songhai? Niger
Which river served as a conduit for trade and travel for the Kongo? Congo
Which African empires suffered from religious warfare? Ethiopia and Songhai
What form of government did all of the African empires have? Monarchy
What trade route was used by the Songhai and Asante? Trans-Saharan
What is the name of the area at the tip of southern Africa? Cape of Good Hope
What is the name of the area of East Africa the juts into the Red Sea? African Horn
What 'good' was traded by the Songhai Astante and Kongo? Slaves
What good was traded by both Ethiopia and kongo? Ivory
Which empire was able to produce objects from metal? Kongo
In what ways did the Kongo excel at cultural expression? art made of wood, textiles and terra cotta
due to their isolation the primary economic activities of the Zulu was? agriculture and raising livestock
What missionaries were most responsible for the conversion of some empires to Christianity? Jesuits
What did all slave trading empires have in common geographically? they bordered the Atlantic

Bio-5.1 & 5.2 The process of the cell cycle

Question Answer
What is a chromosome? Long piece of DNA; 1 body cell=46 chromosomes
what is a chromaid? duplicated chromosome
what is a centromere? sister chromatids: held together
what is mitosis? continuous process; does not happen in steps
What is the cell cycle? is a regular pattern of growth,DNA duplication,and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells.
What are the 4 main phases of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Stages in the cell cycle? interpase, Gap1, synthesis, Gap2, mitosis
What are Cytokinesis and mitosis? continuous process; do not happen in steps.
can a cell get too big? Yes, if the cell gets bigger than the volume increases faster in speed
which phase is the cell cycle DNA copied? In Interphase
Do all cells take the same amount of time to divide? No;because different amounts of eukaryotic cells takes different amount of times.
the word part telo-means "end". How does the meaning of the terms telomere and telophase? This means spindle fibers fall apart.
how many chromaieds are there in one duplicated chromosme? there are 2
two identical daughter cells result from mitosis and cytokinesis. In what ways are they identical? held together;sister chromatied
what is cell cycle part 2? is a pattern of growth,DNA duplication,and division

Chapter 7

Term Definition
Poll tax Sum of money to be paid before a person could vote.
Literacy test Reading and writing tests formerly used in some southern states to prevent African Americans from voting.
Grandfather clause Law to disqualify African American voters by allowing to vote only men whose fathers and grandfathers voted before 1867.
Spoils system Practice of political party in power giving jobs and appointments to its supporters, rather than to people based on their qualifications.
Civil service Government departments and their non elected employees.
Gold standard Policy of designating monetary units in terms of their value in gold.
Populist party People's party; political party formed in 1891 to advocate a larger money supply and other economic reforms.
Las Gorras Blancas (The white caps) group of Mexican Americans living in New Mexico who attempted to protect their land and way of life from encroachment by white landowners.

Unit 3

Question Answer
High level programming language: A programming language with many commands and features designed to make common tasks easier to program. Any high level functionality is encapsulated as combinations of low level commands.
Low level programming langauge A programming language that captures only the most primitive operations available to a machine. Anything that a computer can do can be represented with combinations of low level commands.
Algorithm A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer and are implemented using programming languages.
Iterate To repeat in order to achieve, or get closer to, a desired goal.
Selection A generic term for a type of programming statement (usually an if-statement) that uses a Boolean condition to determine, or select, whether or not to run a certain block of statements.
Sequencing Putting commands in correct order so computers can read the commands.
Turtle Programming a classic method for learning programming with commands to control movement and drawing of an on-screen robot called a "turtle".
Abstraction: a simplified representation of something more complex. Abstractions allow you to hide details to help you manage complexity, focus on relevant concepts, and reason about problems at a higher level.
Function a named group of programming instructions. Functions are reusable abstractions that reduce the complexity of writing and maintaining programs
Top Down Design a problem solving approach (also known as stepwise design) in which you break down a system to gain insight into the sub-systems that make it up.
API a collection of commands made available to a programmer
Documentation a description of the behavior of a command, function, library, API, etc.
Hexadeximal A base-16 number system that uses sixteen distinct symbols 0-9 and A-F to represent numbers from 0 to 15.
Library a collection of commands / functions, typically with a shared purpose
Parameter An extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize it for a specific need.
Loop a programming construct that repeats a group of commands.
Iteration "loop" by another name – the repetition of a statement, process, or procedure.
For Loop A particular kind of looping construct provided in many languages. Typically, a for loop defines a counting variable that is checked and incremented on each iteration in order to loop a specific number of times.
Abstraction a simplified representation of something more complex. Abstractions allow you to hide details to help you manage complexity, focus on relevant concepts, and reason about problems at a higher level.

Chapter 1

Term Definition
Genre Clear context for the reader close to author tone, bias and expected vocabulary type or source
Objective what you are expected to learn from the passage
Prior Knowledge What/how much you already know about the topic
Criteria Requirements
Annotation jotting down main point/definition in the margins. Making notwa of main points
Misconception lie, misunderstanding unaware error in judgement
Predictive Reading Guess what direction the author may be going as to
Close Reading Deeper understanding of the full text
Familiarize Getting a general sense of the idea in the chapter
Context How words are used in a text surrounding a word or passage influences its meanings
Syllabus a course "contract" that spells out requirements, schedule, etc. contract between student and instructor
Degree Evaluation audit of your courses and grades to make sure you successfully finished
Default Not paying loan in timely manner
developmental basic skills

UNIT 3 UNIT 3 – Definitions

Term Definition
Apartment complexes Group of apartments or apartment building. They many offer common laundry, pools, and storage facilities.
Condominium (Condo) Form of ownership, where residents own individual unit and have shared common spaces; parking lot, laundry, pools… A management company uses takes care of the grounds and the owners pay association fees.
Cooperative Similar to Condos; but the residents own Shares of stock in the corporation that owns the building not the unit itself. Therefore, the residents are stockholders and/or shareholders. The residents pay fees for maintenance like condo owners.
MUDs (Mixed Urban Development) A highrise building can include residential units mixed with commercial space, apartments, offices, and recreational space. These are built up, vs PUDs built out.
PUDs (Planned Unit Developments) Combination of different land uses, such as commercial, residential, and recreational, into one development. The owner owns their dwelling and pays association fees for maintenance. A larger community. PUDs are usually built under special zoning ordina
Retirement communities Much like PUDs, but built for an older age group.
Converted-use properties A building originally built for commercial use and converted into residential dwellings. ex: warehouse converted to apartment building.
Manufactured housing, Mobile homes, housing that appear mobile in nature, but are completed on-site, usually in housing parks. Housing park provide the water, gas,and electricity.
Time-shares Several owners for 1 piece of property where owner get a designated length of time each year to the property…Usually for vacation property.
PITI Principle, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance. Required payment by lenders if you do not have enough for down payment.
Debt to income ratiohousing ratio or front-end ratio. a purchaser’s housing expense (PITI), cannot be more than 28% of their gross (pre-tax) income
Equity Portion of the mortgage paid off.
Homeowner's Insurance Lenders usually require that a homeowner obtain insurance when a debt is secured by the property.
Basic Form Insurance Policy • fire and lightning,• glass breakage,• windstorm and hail,• explosion,• riot and civil commotion,• damage by aircraft,• damage from vehicles,• damage from smoke,• vandalism and malicious mischief,• theft, and• loss of property removed
Broad Form Insurance Policy Basic+ • falling objects;• damage due to the weight of ice, snow, or sleet;• collapse of all or part of the building;• bursting, cracking, burning, or bulging of a steam or hot water heating system or of appliances used to heat water;• accidental
Flood Insurance If property located in flood zone, a lender will require you to get this insurance
Debt to income ratio back-end ratio, PITI plus all other loans can not exceed 36%.

Rational Numbers Practice adding and subtracting rational numbers

Question Answer
-5/12 – 3/10 -43/60
-16 + (-11) -27
-15 + 5 -10
100 + (-25) 75
-32 + (-2) -34
8 – 18 -10
-16 – (-5) -11
-18 – 7 -25
-12 – (-27) 15
-1.6 + (-2.4) -4
3.8 – (-7.45) 11.25
When subtracting rational numbers, you need to…. …change the problem to an addition of the opposite.
When adding numbers with the SAME SIGN… Add the numbers, and keep the sign.
When adding numbers with DIFFERENT SIGNS… Put the sign of the "bigger" number, and subtract the absolute values.
9 4— + ( ? — )10 5 1/10

Stack #2663371

Question Answer
What happens during interphase? Cells carry out their normal functions and undergo critical growth and preperation for cell division.
What is the cell cycle? A pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in an eukaroytic cell.
What are the four main stages in the cell cycle ? Gap 1, synthesis , gap 2 and mitosis.
What does gap 1, synthesis and gap 2 make up together? Gap 1, synthesis and gap 2 make up whats is called interphase .
Does size of the cell matter ? Yes, because if the cell is to small the organells wont fit into the cell, and if the cell it is to big the cell wont be able to digest properly.
What happens during gap 1? A cell carries out its normal functions.
What does synthesis mean? The combining of parts to make a whole.
What happens during synthesis ? The cell make a copy of it nuclear DNA.
What happens during gap 2 ? Cells continue to carry out their normal functions, and additional growth occurs ,
What does Mitosis mean? The division of the cell nucleus and its content.
What happens during cytokinesis ? Divides the cell cytoplasm.
What happens during Mitosis ? The nuclear membrane dissolves, the duplicated DNA condenses around protiens and separates, and two nuclei forms.
How long does it take for your skin cells to grow ? It takes 2 weeks