Inside the earth

Term Definition
Crust The thin and solid outermost layer of the earth above the mantle
Mantle The layer of rock between the earths crust and core
Core The central part of the earth below the mantle
Lithosphere The solid outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
Asthenospere The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move
Mesosphere The strong lower part of the mantle between the asthenospere and the outer core
Tectonic plate A block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid outermost part of the mantle
Continental drift The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmas broke up and drifted to their present locatations
Sea-floor spreading The process by which new Oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies
Plate tectonics The theory that explains how large pieces of the earths outermost layer called tectonic plates move and change shape
Convergent boundary The boundary formed by the collision of two lithospheric plates
Divergent boundary The boundary betweeen two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
Transform boundary The boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
Compression Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
Tension Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
Folding The bending of rock layers due to stress
Fault A break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another
Uplift The rising of regions of the earths crust to higher evaluations
Subsidence The sinking of regions of the earths crust to lower elevations
Outer core The earths core is divided into two parts the outer core and the inner core the outer core is the Liguria layer of the earths core that lies beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core
Inner core
The most inner part of the earth

reformation vocab

Term Definition
respond to react to something that has been said or done
publication book or other printed work
error something incorrect or incorrectly done
minor small and not very important or serious
parliament group of people who make up a country's law
finance to provide a large amount of money to pay for something
contrast difference between people, ideas, or situations that are being compared
individual considered separately from other people or things in the same group
reformation a religious movement that began in the 1500s to reform the catholic church
Martin Luther he was an important leader of the reformation and he was also a german monk
indulgence the church began selling indulgences or pardons for sin
John calvin a french scholar named john calvin was one of the most influenced of the new protestant leaders
predestination the idea that god had long ago determined who would gain salvation
theocracy a theocracy is a government ruled by religious leaders
william tyndale he printed an english translation of the new testament of the bible
counter-reformation the movement to strengthen the teachings and structure of the catholic church
Jesuits the society of jesus
Ignatius Loyola the most influential of the new religious orders were founded by him
council of trent sought ways to retrieve the moral authority of the catholic church and stop the spread of protectanism
henry VIII the king of england wrote a book criticizing luthers ideas
annulment an annulment is an official action ending a marriage
act of supremacy this act made the king the leader of church of england
Henry IV he was crowned the following year. the civil war ended soon after henry assumed the throne
edict an edict is an official public order made by a king or another authority
philip II the catholic ruler of spain championed the counter- reformation
armada philip sent an armada, or fleet of ships to attack england
absolute monarchy in an absolute monarchy a ruler had complete power over the government and its subjects
divine rights of kings a theory which states the kings right to rule comes directly from god
Louis XIV these two kingship created a powerful leader in frances king Louis XIV
a constitutional monarchy a constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a kings or queens power is llimited by a constitution
federalism a form of government in which power is shared between local and national levels

Inside The Earth

Term Definition
Crust The outermost layer of the earth.
Mantle The layer of the earth between crust and the core is the mantle
Core The layer of the earth that extends from below the mantle to the center of the earth is the Core.
Lithosphere The solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.
Asthenosphere The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move.
Mesosphere The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
Tectonic plate A block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outmost part of the mantle
Continental drift The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations.
Sea floor spreading The process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies.
Plate tectonics
The theory that explains how large pieces of the eartha??s outermost layer, called tectonic plates, move and change shape.
Convergent boundary The boundary formed by the collision of two lithosphere plates
Divergent boundary
The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Transform boundary The boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
Compression Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
Tension Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
Folding The bending of rock layers due to stress
Fault A break in a body which one block slides relative to another
Uplift The rising of regions of the eartha??s crust to lower elevations
Subsidence The sinking of regions of the eartha??s crust to lower elevations

Vocab 13 chap 13

Term Definition
agonizing very painful
energeric lively and active
foresight wise planing
interval space
prosper to do well
strive to make an effort
substance material
tolerance respect for others
trait personal quality
withdraw take back

Inside The Earth

Term Definition
Crust The thin and soild outermost layer of the earth above the mantle.
Mantle The layer of rock between the earths crust or core
Core The central part of the earth below the mantle.
Lithosphere The solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.
Asthenosphere The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move.
Mesosphere The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core.
Tectonic plate A block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle.
Continental drift The hypothesis that states that continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted or their present locations.
Sea~floor spreading The process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies.
Plate tectonics
The theory that explains how large pieces of the earths outermost layer, called tectonic plates, move and change shape
Convergent boundary The boundary formed by the collision of two lithosphere
Divergent boundary The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Transform boundary The boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding pst each other horizontally.
Compression Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
Tension Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
Folding The bending of rock layers due to stress
Fault A break in a body of rock alone which one block slides relative to another
Uplift The rising of regions of the earths crust to higher elevations
Subsidence The sinking of regions of the earths crust to lower elevations

Economic Systems

Term Definition
Economics The social science that deals with the production , distribution,and consumption of goods and services
Bartering Exchanging 1 good or service for another
Questions Answered What to produce?How to produce it?For whom to produce?
Traditional Econmy All members of the economy own the natural resources and there is no profit
Command Econmy The government decides what good are made and how they will be made
Market Econmy Economic System based on free trade and competition
Supply How much people have
Demand What/how much people want
Specialization Making a living doing what a person does best
Mixed Econmy Combination of government and privately owned buisnesses
Human Capital A supply of people who can produce goods & services
Entrepenur People with new ideas that are willing to start a business/make a product
Natural Resorces Items that come from the world around us that we use for our own purposes
Capital Goods Items that people need preform their job
GDP The average annual income of a nation's citizens
Standard of Living Level of comfort in everyday life
Literacy Rate The percentage of people in a country who can read or write
Specialization Making a living doing what a person does best
Currency Money
Exchange Rate Converting 1 nation's money into an equal value of another nation's money
Embargo Bans on trading with another country for political reasons
Tariffs A tax placed on imported goods brought in from another country
Quotas A number limit on haw many items of particular product can be imported from a particular country

English vocab 3

Question Answer
Universal truth; an established rule Syn: fundamental Ant: absurdity Axiom
In a condescending manner, with an attitude of superiority Syn: lofty, arrogant Ant: humble, friendly Patronizing
An artist or a designers workshop Atelier
One who bares the blame for others Syn: pasty; sucker Scapegoat
To waver,to sway Indecisevely Syn: fluctuate, swing, waffle ant: decide Vacillate
Melodious, pleasing to the ear Syn:harmonic melodic Ant: cacophonous; dissonant Dulcet
Not allowing refusal of delay, imperative Syn: authoritive, unconditional Ant: roundabout, passive, equivocal Peremptory
To claim for oneself with out any right or authority Syn: commandeer, seize Ant: relinquish, give Areagote
No longer current or applicable, antiquated Syn: obsolute, outmoded Ant: current modern Archaic
Keen; mentally sharp Syn: shrewed. CleverAnt: dull stupid Perspicacious
A magic charm or superstition , object for protection Talisman
To remove vulgar or objectionable material Syn: censor, bowderlize, sanitize Expurgate

the rise of business

Question Answer
Capitalism an economic and political system
Free Enterprise a system which private business operates in competitive free of state control
Communism people get paid based on how they are and which all property belongs to the public
Social Darwinism various ways of thinking that emerged in the 19th century
Corporation a company or group
trust reliability, truth,
Monopoly possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
Vertical Integration combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies.
Horizontal Integration process of increasing production of something
Cornelius Vanderbilt an American business magnate and philanthropist
George Pullman an American engineer and industrialist
Horatio Alder Jr. was a prolific 19th-century American writer
Andrew Carnegie a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist
John D. Rockefeller an American oil industry business magnate, industrialist, and philanthropist

Inside The Earth

Term Definition
Crust The outermost layer of the Earth
Mantle The layer of the Earth between the crust and the core.
Core The layer of the Earth that extends from below the mantle
Lithosphere The solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
Asthenosphere The soft layer of the mantle on which the Teutonic plates move
Mesosphere The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
Tectonic Plate A block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle
Continental Drift The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass,broke up,and drifted The their present locations.
Sea-Floor Spreading The process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies
Plate Tectonics The theory that explains how large pieces of the eartha??s outermost layer, called tectonicnplates, move and change shape
Convergent Boundary The boundary formed by the collision of two lithospheric plates
Divergent Boundary The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
Transform Boundary The boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
Compression Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
Tension Stress that occurs when forces act together to stretch and object
Folding
The bending of rock layers due to stress
Fault A break in a body of rock along which one slides relative to another
Uplift The rising of regions of the earths crust to higher elevations
Subsidence The sinking of regions of the earths crust to lower elevation

WIG Vocabulary

Term Definition
Oxygen a tasteless order less gas that living things need to breath
alliance an agreement between nations to support and protect each other
inspect to examine closely and carefully
proceed continued: carried on
descended moved from a higher place to a lower one
dormant temporarily quit or not active
tenant someone who pays rent
region large area that has common features that set it apart from other areas
migrate to move from one area to another
conservation protection and careful of natural resources
concerted jointly arranged, planned, or carried out; coordinated
suffrage the right to vote
transferred moved from place to place
representative a person who is chosen to represent or stand for another or others
destruction great damage or ruin
uninhabtitable not lived in
suburb a residential are outside a large city
mobilize to assemble for action
leberated to free an area or person
monopolize to take the greater share of something